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What is C++ and why is it important for programming

Cpp, short for C++, is a widely used programming language that is known for its powerful capabilities and flexibility. It is an extension of the C programming language and incorporates additional features that make it suitable for a variety of applications. Cpp is primarily used for system software, game development, embedded systems, and other performance-intensive applications.

One of the key features of Cpp is its object-oriented programming (OOP) paradigm. It allows developers to write code that represents real-world objects and their interactions. This makes Cpp a highly modular and organized language, making it easier to write and maintain complex programs.

Cpp syntax is similar to that of the C programming language, but with added features and improvements. It supports a wide range of data types, control structures, and functions. The syntax is designed to be readable and intuitive, making it easier for developers to write efficient and error-free code.

When it comes to writing Cpp code, developers typically use an integrated development environment (IDE) to write, compile, and debug their programs. IDEs provide a variety of tools and features that streamline the development process, such as code editors, compilers, and debuggers. Popular Cpp IDEs include Visual Studio, Xcode, and Eclipse.

The compilation process is an essential step in Cpp programming. When you write Cpp code, it needs to be converted into machine-readable code that can be executed by the computer. This process is called compilation. Cpp code is first compiled into object code, which is then linked with other object code and libraries to create an executable program.

History and origins of C++

C++ is a high-level programming language that was developed as an extension of the C programming language. It was created by Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, in the early 1980s.

The development of C++ was motivated by the need for a more powerful and efficient programming language that could be used for system-level programming. Stroustrup wanted to combine the flexibility and efficiency of C with the object-oriented programming paradigm.

The origin of C++

The name “C++” was coined by Stroustrup to signify that C++ is an extension of the C programming language. The “++” symbolizes the increment operator in C, indicating that C++ adds additional features to C.

Stroustrup started developing C++ in 1979 at Bell Labs, as part of his PhD thesis. He wanted to add classes, virtual functions, and other features to C, without sacrificing its efficiency. The first compiler for C++ was called “Cfront” and was implemented by Stroustrup himself.

Evolution and standardization of C++

In the early years, C++ evolved rapidly as Stroustrup continued to refine and extend the language. The first commercial release of C++ was in 1985, and the language gained popularity among developers for its combination of low-level programming capabilities and high-level abstractions.

In 1998, an international standard for C++ was published, known as “ISO/IEC 14882:1998” or simply “C++98”. This standard defined the syntax and semantics of the C++ language, ensuring its portability and compatibility across different platforms and implementations.

Since C++98, the language has undergone several revisions and updates, with new features and improvements being added. The latest version of C++ is C++20, which was finalized in 2020 and introduces significant enhancements and new capabilities.

C++ is widely used in various domains, including system-level programming, game development, embedded systems, and high-performance computing. It is supported by numerous integrated development environments (IDEs) and has a large community of developers.

In conclusion, C++ has a rich history and has evolved into a powerful and versatile programming language. Its object-oriented approach, combined with the efficiency and flexibility of C, makes it a popular choice for many programmers.

C++ vs C: Differences and similarities

When it comes to comparing C++ and C, it’s important to understand the similarities and differences between these two programming languages. Both C++ and C are widely used in the programming world and have their own advantages and disadvantages.

One of the main differences between C++ and C lies in their approach to programming. C++ is considered an object-oriented programming (OOP) language, while C is a procedural programming language. This means that in C++, you can use objects and classes to structure your code and organize data, whereas in C, you focus more on functions and procedures.

Another difference between C++ and C is the way their compilers handle the code. C++ has a more complex compilation process compared to C. In C++, the compiler not only checks for syntax errors, but also performs various optimizations and resolves dependencies between different objects and classes. In C, the compilation process is generally simpler and focuses on converting the source code directly into machine code.

Despite these differences, C and C++ do share many similarities. Both languages use similar syntax, as C++ was developed as an extension of C. This means that if you know C, it’s relatively easy to learn C++. Many concepts and programming techniques used in C can also be applied in C++.

In terms of programming environments, both C and C++ can be developed using various integrated development environments (IDEs) such as Visual Studio, Eclipse, and Code::Blocks. These IDEs provide a range of features such as code editing, debugging, and project management, making it easier for developers to write and test their code.

In conclusion, while C++ and C have their own unique features and approaches to programming, they also share similarities. C++ is an object-oriented language with a more complex compilation process, while C is a procedural language with a simpler compilation process. Understanding the differences and similarities between these two languages can help developers choose the right language for their specific needs.

Key features of C++

Compilation: C++ is a compiled language, meaning that the code is first translated by a compiler into machine code before it can be executed.

Object-oriented: C++ supports object-oriented programming, allowing programmers to define and create objects that encapsulate data and behavior.

Programming: C++ is a powerful programming language that provides a wide range of features for creating efficient and high-performance software.

Compiler: C++ code is typically compiled using a C++ compiler, which translates the source code into executable machine code.

Language: C++ is a general-purpose programming language that can be used to develop a wide range of applications, from simple console programs to complex software systems.

Code: C++ code is written in text files with the extension .cpp, and it is composed of statements and expressions that define the program’s behavior.

IDE: Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) provide tools for developing C++ programs, including code editors, compilers, and debugging tools.

Benefits and advantages of learning C++

C++ is a powerful and versatile programming language that offers numerous benefits and advantages to those who take the time to learn it.

1. Wide range of applications: C++ is widely used in various fields, including game development, system programming, embedded systems, and high-performance computing. Learning C++ opens up a world of possibilities for individuals interested in these areas.

2. Efficient and fast: C++ is known for its efficiency and speed. It allows for low-level programming and provides direct control over hardware resources. This makes C++ a preferred choice for performance-critical applications.

3. Object-oriented programming: C++ supports object-oriented programming (OOP), which allows for the creation of modular and reusable code. OOP helps in organizing large projects and enables code reusability, leading to efficient and maintainable codebases.

4. Compilation: C++ compiles into machine code, resulting in highly efficient and optimized executable files. This compilation process helps in generating code that can be executed directly by a computer, without the need for interpretation.

5. Syntax: C++ has a clear and structured syntax, which makes it easier to read and write code. Its syntax is derived from the C programming language, making it familiar to those already acquainted with C.

6. Integrated Development Environments (IDEs): C++ has robust support from various IDEs, such as Visual Studio, Eclipse, and Code::Blocks. These IDEs provide tools and features that enhance the coding experience, making it easier to write, debug, and test C++ code.

7. Community and resources: C++ has a large and active community of developers who continuously contribute to its growth and development. This means that there are ample resources, tutorials, and forums available for learning and troubleshooting.

8. Career opportunities: Proficiency in C++ opens up numerous career opportunities. Many companies and organizations seek professionals with C++ skills, particularly in fields like software development, game programming, and scientific research.

In conclusion, learning C++ offers a range of benefits and advantages. It allows for the development of efficient and fast applications in various domains. With its robust community and wide range of applications, C++ is a valuable programming language to learn and add to one’s skillset.

Where is C++ used?

C++ is a widely used programming language that is known for its efficiency and versatility. It is often used in a variety of domains and industries due to its powerful features and wide range of applications. Here are some common areas where C++ is used:

Domain Usage
System Programming C++ is commonly used for low-level programming tasks like operating systems, drivers, and firmware development. Its direct memory access and hardware control capabilities make it a preferred choice for these applications.
Game Development C++ is widely used in the game development industry to create high-performance games. Its ability to directly access hardware and optimize code for speed makes it a popular choice among game developers.
Embedded Systems C++ is often used in the development of embedded systems, such as microcontrollers and IoT devices. Its ability to interface with hardware and manage limited resources efficiently is crucial in these applications.
Financial Applications C++ is widely used in the financial industry for developing high-frequency trading systems, risk management tools, and algorithmic trading platforms. Its speed and efficiency are essential in handling large volumes of financial data.
Graphics and Visualization C++ is commonly used in graphics programming and visualization applications. Its support for low-level graphics APIs and ability to manipulate memory directly allows developers to create complex graphics and scientific visualizations.
Compilers and Interpreters C++ is often used in the development of compilers and interpreters for other programming languages. Its ability to generate efficient machine code and handle complex syntax makes it suitable for these tasks.
Scientific Computing C++ is popular in scientific computing due to its performance and support for numerical libraries like Eigen and Armadillo. It is commonly used in areas such as computational physics, bioinformatics, and data analysis.
Networking C++ is frequently used in networking applications, such as network protocols, server software, and network infrastructure development. Its low-level control over sockets and efficient memory management make it an ideal choice for these tasks.

These are just a few examples of the many domains and industries where C++ is used. Its widespread adoption and extensive library support make it a versatile language for various programming tasks.

Basics of C++ syntax

C++ is an object-oriented programming language that allows developers to write efficient and portable code. It is compiled, meaning that the source code is translated into machine-readable instructions by a compiler.

When you start working with C++, you will need an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) where you can write, compile, and run your code. IDEs provide tools for editing, debugging, and managing your project.

The C++ programming language has a specific syntax, which is a set of rules and conventions that specify how to write valid C++ code.

Here are some key aspects of C++ syntax:

1. Compilation:

To run a C++ program, you must first compile it. The compiler reads your source code and converts it into machine code that can be executed by the computer. This process is called compilation.

2. Language elements:

C++ has various language elements, such as variables, functions, classes, and namespaces. These elements are used to define the structure and behavior of objects in your program.

3. Statements and expressions:

C++ programs are made up of individual statements, which are instructions that perform a specific action. Statements can contain expressions, which are combinations of values, variables, and operators that produce a new value.

4. Control structures:

C++ provides control structures like if-else statements, for loops, and while loops to control the flow of execution in your program. These structures allow you to make decisions and repeat actions based on certain conditions.


You can add comments to your code to make it more readable and provide explanations. C++ supports single-line comments starting with // and multi-line comments enclosed in /* */.

Understanding the basics of C++ syntax is essential for writing correct and efficient code. It helps you communicate your intentions to the compiler and makes your code easier to read and maintain.

Variables and data types in C++

In the object-oriented programming language C++, variables play a crucial role in storing and manipulating data. Variables are named containers that hold values of various data types, such as integers, floating-point numbers, characters, and Boolean values.

In C++, variables must be declared before use, specifying their data type. For example, to declare an integer variable named “age”, you would write:

int age;

This declares a variable named “age” of type “int”. The “int” data type is used for integer values without decimal places.

Once a variable is declared, you can assign a value to it using the assignment operator ( = ). For example:

age = 30;

This assigns the value 30 to the variable “age”.

C++ provides various data types, including:

  • int: Used for integers
  • float: Used for floating-point numbers with decimal places
  • double: Used for double-precision floating-point numbers
  • char: Used for single characters
  • bool: Used for Boolean values (true or false)

Data types in C++ are important because they determine the size and behavior of variables and affect how the code is processed during compilation by the C++ compiler. Choosing the appropriate data type for a variable is essential for efficient memory usage and accurate calculations.

C++ also supports user-defined data types through the use of classes and structures, allowing for the creation of complex data structures and encapsulation of related data and functions.

When writing C++ code, it’s important to use an integrated development environment (IDE) that provides features such as syntax highlighting, code completion, and debugging tools. These tools can help catch errors and improve productivity.

In summary, variables and data types are fundamental concepts in C++ programming. Understanding how to declare and use variables of different data types is essential for writing efficient and effective code.

Working with operators in C++

In programming, operators are symbols or keywords that are used to perform specific actions or operations in code. They allow you to manipulate values and variables in your program. C++ provides a wide range of operators for performing arithmetic, logical, and relational operations.

When writing code in C++, it is essential to understand the syntax and meaning of these operators to effectively utilize them in your program. Whether you are using an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) or a text editor, the C++ compiler will analyze and interpret your code during the compilation process.

C++ is known as an object-oriented programming language, which means it supports concepts such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. Operators in C++ work on various data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, characters, and more. They can be used to combine, compare, or modify values and variables.

The process of compilation in C++ involves converting your code into a format that the computer can understand and execute. During compilation, the compiler checks your code for errors, such as syntax errors or type mismatches. It also performs optimizations to improve the efficiency and performance of your program.

Understanding the syntax and semantics of operators in C++ is crucial for writing efficient and reliable code. It allows you to express complex computations and logic in a concise and understandable manner. Whether you are performing basic arithmetic operations or implementing complex algorithms, operators play a significant role in accomplishing your programming tasks.

In conclusion, operators in C++ are essential elements of the language that allow you to perform various operations on values and variables. They are critical for expressing computations and logic in your code. By understanding the syntax and semantics of operators, you can improve the clarity and efficiency of your C++ programs.

Control structures in C++

In C++ programming language, control structures are used to control the flow of execution of a program. They determine the order in which the code is executed based on certain conditions. The syntax of control structures in C++ is similar to many other programming languages.

Conditional Statements

Conditional statements in C++ allow the execution of different blocks of code based on certain conditions. The most commonly used conditional statements are:

Statement Description
If statement Executes a block of code if a specified condition is true
If-else statement Executes a block of code if a specified condition is true, otherwise executes a different block of code
Switch statement Executes different blocks of code based on the value of a variable

Looping Statements

Looping statements in C++ allow the repetition of a block of code until a certain condition is met. The most commonly used looping statements are:

Statement Description
While loop Executes a block of code repeatedly as long as a specified condition is true
For loop Executes a block of code repeatedly for a specified number of times
Do-while loop Executes a block of code repeatedly as long as a specified condition is true, with the condition checked after each iteration

These control structures provide the foundation for creating complex and dynamic programs in C++. Understanding how to use them effectively is essential for writing efficient and organized code.

Functions in C++

Functions in C++ are an essential component of programming. They allow for code reusability and help break down large programs into smaller, more manageable pieces. By defining a function, you can encapsulate a specific set of operations that can be called upon as needed.

C++ functions are created and defined by the programmer using the following syntax:

return_type function_name(parameter_list) {
     // function body

The return type indicates the type of value the function will return after execution. The function name is an identifier chosen by the programmer to represent the function. The parameter list contains the input variables or values that the function can accept.

Functions can be used to implement specific tasks, such as mathematical calculations, string manipulation, or even complex algorithms. They can also be used to organize code and improve the readability and modularity of a program.

C++ is an object-oriented programming language, and functions can be defined within classes or outside of classes. When a function is defined within a class, it is called a member function or method. Member functions have access to the private and protected members of the class.

Once a function is defined, it can be called or invoked by its name followed by parentheses. Arguments can be passed to the function within the parentheses if the function accepts parameters. The function will then execute its defined code and potentially return a value.

Before a C++ program can use a function, it needs to be declared or defined. Declaration refers to providing the function signature, which includes the function name, return type, and parameter list. Definition refers to providing the function body, which includes the actual code that the function will execute.

C++ code is compiled using a C++ compiler, which translates the code into executable machine language that can be run by the computer’s CPU. The compilation process involves translating the source code into an object file and linking it with other object files to create an executable file. The compiled code can then be run through an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) or command line.

Object-oriented programming with C++

C++ is a powerful and versatile programming language that supports object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. OOP is a programming paradigm that organizes code around objects, which are instances of classes. C++ allows you to define classes and create objects that encapsulate data and the functions that operate on that data.

Compiler and IDE

To write and run C++ code, you need a compiler that can convert your human-readable code into machine-executable instructions. There are several popular C++ compilers available, such as GCC and Clang, which can be used from the command line or integrated into an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) like Visual Studio Code or Xcode.

Syntax and code compilation

C++ has its own syntax, which defines the rules for writing C++ code. It has a similar syntax to the C programming language but with additional features specific to C++. To compile C++ code, you need to follow the syntax rules and use a compiler to generate executable code. During compilation, the compiler checks for errors and translates the code into machine language instructions that can be executed by the computer.

Object-oriented programming in C++ involves creating classes, using objects, and implementing inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. Classes are the building blocks of C++ programs and define the structure and behavior of objects. Objects are instances of classes that store data and provide methods to manipulate that data. Inheritance allows you to create new classes based on existing ones, while polymorphism enables the use of a single interface to represent different types of objects.

C++ supports a wide range of object-oriented programming features, making it a popular choice for developing complex software systems. Its flexibility and performance make it suitable for a variety of applications, from game development to system programming.

Classes and objects in C++

In C++, objects are created using classes, which are the building blocks of object-oriented programming. A class is a user-defined data type that encapsulates data and functions together, allowing for code reusability and modularity.

Defining a Class

To define a class in C++, you use the class keyword followed by the class name and a set of curly braces. Inside the class, you can declare attributes (data members) and functions (member functions) that define the behavior of the objects of that class.

The syntax for defining a class is:

class ClassName {
// data members
// member functions

For example, here’s a simple class named Person with two data members – name and age – and two member functions – setName and setAge:

class Person {
std::string name;
int age;
void setName(std::string n) {
name = n;
void setAge(int a) {
age = a;

In this example, the Person class has two private data members (name and age) and two public member functions (setName and setAge). The private data members can only be accessed within the class, while the public member functions can be accessed from outside the class.

Creating Objects

Once you have defined a class, you can create objects of that class using the class name followed by the object name and a set of parentheses. The syntax for creating objects is:

ClassName objectName;

For example, to create a Person object named person1, you would write:

Person person1;

After creating an object, you can access its data members and member functions using the dot operator (.), like this:


In this example, we are calling the setName function to set the name of person1 to “John”, and the setAge function to set the age of person1 to 25.

By using classes and objects in C++, you can write clean and organized code that is easier to manage and understand. The compiler will take care of compiling the code and generating the necessary machine instructions, allowing you to focus on the logic of your program.

Inheritance and polymorphism in C++

Inheritance and polymorphism are two important concepts in object-oriented programming. In C++, inheritance allows a class to inherit the properties and behavior of another class, known as the base class. This promotes code reuse and allows for the creation of more specialized classes. The syntax for inheritance in C++ involves using the colon (:) followed by the access specifier and the name of the base class.

When a class inherits from a base class, it automatically inherits all of the data members and member functions of the base class. The derived class can then add new features or modify existing ones. This is done by declaring new data members and member functions within the derived class.

Polymorphism, on the other hand, allows different objects to be treated as objects of a common base class. This allows for more flexibility in programming. C++ supports two types of polymorphism: compile-time (or static) polymorphism and runtime (or dynamic) polymorphism.

Compile-time polymorphism is achieved through function overloading and operator overloading. Function overloading allows multiple functions with the same name but different parameter lists to be defined in the same scope. The compiler determines which function to call based on the arguments passed to it. Operator overloading allows operators such as +, -, *, and / to be redefined for user-defined types.

Runtime polymorphism is achieved through virtual functions and the use of base class pointers or references. Virtual functions are functions declared in a base class that can be overridden by a derived class. This allows the derived class to provide its own implementation of the function. Base class pointers or references can then be used to refer to objects of both the base class and the derived class, allowing for dynamic dispatch and runtime type checking.

C++ is a powerful programming language that supports object-oriented programming concepts such as inheritance and polymorphism. Understanding these concepts and their syntax is essential for writing efficient and reusable code. A good IDE and compiler can greatly aid in the development and debugging of C++ programs.

Exception handling in C++

Exception handling is an important feature of the C++ programming language that allows developers to handle errors or exceptional situations in an organized manner. It is a mechanism that helps in the smooth execution of code, even in the presence of unexpected situations.

C++ is an object-oriented programming language, and its exception handling mechanism is an integral part of its syntax. When an exception occurs in a C++ program, it can be caught and handled using the try-catch block. This allows the programmer to specify a block of code that will be executed if an exception of a certain type occurs.

The try-catch block

The try block is used to enclose a section of code where an exception might occur. The code inside the try block is executed normally, but if an exception is thrown, it is caught and handled by the catch block.

The catch block is used to catch and handle exceptions. It specifies the type of exception it can catch and the code that will be executed if an exception of that type is thrown.

Here is an example of how exception handling works in C++:

try {
// code that might throw an exception
catch (exceptionType1) {
// code to handle exceptionType1
catch (exceptionType2) {
// code to handle exceptionType2

Exception classes

In C++, exceptions are implemented using classes. The exceptions can be defined by the programmer or can be pre-defined classes provided by the C++ standard library. Exception classes allow programmers to organize and categorize different types of exceptions, making it easier to handle them in a structured manner.

The C++ standard library provides a number of exception classes, such as std::runtime_error, std::logic_error, and std::out_of_range, among others. These classes are derived from the base class std::exception, which provides a standard interface for handling exceptions.


Exception handling in C++ is a powerful feature that allows programmers to handle errors and exceptional situations in a structured manner. The try-catch block and exception classes provide a syntax and mechanism for catching and handling exceptions. Understanding exception handling is essential for writing reliable and robust C++ programs.

File input/output operations in C++

C++ is a powerful and versatile programming language that provides developers with a wide range of tools and features for creating and manipulating files. File input/output (I/O) operations play a crucial role in the programming process, allowing developers to read data from files, write data to files, and perform various file-related tasks.

The syntax for file I/O operations in C++ is straightforward and easy to understand. To perform file I/O, you need to include the #include <fstream> header file, which provides the necessary classes and functions for file operations.

In C++, you can use several classes provided by the Standard Library for file I/O operations, such as:

  • ofstream – used for writing to files
  • ifstream – used for reading from files
  • fstream – used for both reading from and writing to files

To open a file for reading or writing, you need to create an object of the appropriate file I/O class and use the open() member function. For example, to open a file for writing using the ofstream class, you would write:

std::ofstream outputFile;"filename.txt");

After opening a file, you can perform various operations on it, such as reading from or writing to it. For reading from a file, you can use the getline() or >>> operator, while for writing to a file, you can use the write() member function or the << operator.

Once you have finished working with a file, you should close it using the close() member function. This is an important step as it frees up system resources and ensures that any changes made to the file are saved.

C++ provides a wide range of file I/O operations, allowing you to perform tasks such as copying files, searching for specific data within files, and manipulating file content. By mastering file I/O operations, you can create powerful and efficient programs that can handle large amounts of data.

In conclusion, file input/output operations are an essential part of C++ programming. Whether you are creating a simple text file or working with complex binary data, understanding how to read from and write to files is crucial for building robust and functional applications.

Useful resources for learning C++

Learning C++ can be a challenging but rewarding experience. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced programmer, it’s important to have access to quality resources that can help you grasp the syntax and concepts of this powerful programming language. Here are some recommended resources to aid you on your C++ learning journey:

1. Online tutorials and documentation

There are various online platforms that offer comprehensive tutorials and documentation on C++. Websites like and provide extensive resources to learn the language, covering topics such as variables, loops, functions, and classes in detail. These websites often include code examples and interactive exercises to reinforce your understanding of the concepts.

2. C++ compilers and integrated development environments (IDEs)

In order to practice writing and running C++ code, you will need a compiler and an integrated development environment (IDE). Some popular C++ compilers and IDEs include Visual Studio, Code::Blocks, and Eclipse. These tools provide a user-friendly interface for writing, compiling, and debugging C++ code, making the learning process smoother and more efficient.

3. Online coding platforms

Online coding platforms like LeetCode and HackerRank offer C++ coding challenges and exercises that can help you improve your programming skills. These platforms often provide a competitive environment where you can solve real-world problems using C++. Participating in coding competitions and challenges can be a fun and effective way to enhance your understanding of the language.

In conclusion, learning C++ requires a combination of theory and practice. By utilizing the above-mentioned resources, you can gain a solid foundation in the language and become proficient in C++ programming. So get started and embrace the world of C++ programming!


What is C++?

C++ is a high-level programming language that allows developers to build a wide range of applications. It is an extension of the C programming language and adds features like object-oriented programming, templates, and exception handling.

What are the advantages of using C++?

There are several advantages of using C++. It offers a high level of control over hardware resources, allows for efficient memory management, and supports both procedural and object-oriented programming paradigms. Additionally, C++ has a large community and a vast amount of libraries and frameworks available.

Is C++ difficult to learn?

Learning C++ can be challenging, especially for beginners. It has a steep learning curve and requires a solid understanding of programming concepts. However, with dedication and practice, it is certainly possible to become proficient in C++ programming.

What are some popular applications built with C++?

C++ is widely used in various industries to build a range of applications. Some popular examples include game engines, operating systems, web browsers, database management systems, and high-performance scientific simulations.

Are there any alternatives to C++?

Yes, there are several programming languages that can be used as alternatives to C++. Some popular choices include Java, C#, Python, and Rust. The choice of programming language depends on the specific requirements of a project and the developer’s preference.

What is C++ used for?

C++ is a powerful programming language that is widely used in various domains, such as game development, embedded systems, operating systems, and application software. It is known for its efficiency, performance, and ability to manipulate memory directly.